**Goal 4: Think systematically about their
practice and learn from experience**

Exhibit J: Exterior Perspective Drawing

Exhibit K: Perspective Terms

Exhibit L: Perspective Samples PPT

Exhibit M: Differentiated Instruction

Exhibit N: Adapting Classroom Instruction

Exhibit O: Content Literacy

Theorists: Wiggins and McTighe, Gardner,
and Woof

Courses: EDUC 525 and EDUC
505

In order to be an effective practitioner
a teacher must constantly reflect and self-assess in order to adjust for any
changes that need to be made in the classroom. Our students are not machines,
which operate on one track and never require maintenance. They are human beings
who have very individual needs and are tremendously affected by group dynamics.
Therefore, to teach a group of individualists, we must constantly observe,
reflect, and redirect as needed in order to assure learning is occurring.

As an art teacher I use a form of
formative assessment each day in the classroom. The one main formative
assessment I use is observation. Once I have introduced the vocabulary and
basic ideas of the medium or artist we are studying, the students are given a
series of practice lessons. For instance, in a recent lesson on Perspective
Line Drawing I presented to my Art I classes, I began with a
discussion of what the students already knew about perspective. I introduced
the vocabulary
I would be using and discussed the three types
of perspective line drawing we would be covering. During this discussion, I
was able to get an idea of the studentsÕ background knowledge and where I
needed to spend additional time during instruction. As Wiggins and McTighe
(2005) emphasize through their method of backward design for understanding, we
must first identify the intended learning outcome and work backwards from there
to determine our instructional method and assessment strategies. By discussing
the main concepts with the students, I reveal what is already understood and
where I need to go from there.

Over the next couple of days the students
followed along with me on paper during my modeling of one, two and three point
perspective. The students were asked to create a series of boxes in each
viewpoint of perspective. While the students worked, I casually observed their
performance and helped each student individually when problems arose. Using
this method of formative assessment, I gain a clear picture of which students
are reaching understanding and which students may need additional instruction.

The individual learning styles of the
students become clear and I am more able to adjust my instructional methods for
each student rather than trying to adjust to fit an entire class of vastly
diverse learning styles. These informal assessment strategies are extremely
useful to me before presenting the students with their culminating project. The
culminating project is the piece of artwork the students create using the
acquired knowledge and skills from the lesson. The project is a formal
assessment tool and usually summative as well. When I present the project, I
distribute the scoring rubric, which I will be using to grade the artwork. We
go over this rubric as a group and take time to address any concerns that the
students may have about the project. As Wiggins and McTighe explain, ÒWe must
be able to state with clarity what the student should understand and be able to
do as a result of any plan and irrespective of any constraints we faceÓ
(Wiggins and McTighe, 2005, pg. 14).

Gardner suggests there are multiple ways
we learn and by understanding these multiple intelligences we may find ways of
helping our students learn by supporting their strengths and working with their
weaknesses (Bransford, pg 82). In order to know our studentsÕ strengths and
weaknesses we must get to know them and really listen to what they are saying
when they are having trouble understanding. This is part of our reflection and
learning to differentiate our lessons based on the needs of our students as
discussed in EDUC 505 Instructional Theory. (see
Differentiated Instruction)

Learning to adapt and alter our
instruction is not the last step. Even when we have altered the way in which we
teach a lesson for one group of students, we still need to be mindful of
reflection for the next group or individual. What works for one group may not
work for another. The group dynamics change and the learning styles are
completely different. (see
Ref_adaptclassinstruct.doc EDUC 525) The art classroom is a welcoming
environment for students with special needs, a place where individuality is
celebrated. Classroom integration has made a tremendous difference in how we
teach our lesson plans. If I have one or two students with special needs in the
same classroom with high achieving students, I will absolutely need to scaffold
my instruction. I learned about scaffolding and differentiating lesson plans in
EDUC 525 Education the Exceptional Individual. As suggested by Wood, teachers
attempt to build on what students know and extend their competencies by
providing support structures or scaffolds for the studentÕs individual
performance level (as cited by Bransford, pg 104). Some forms of scaffolding a
lesson might be interesting the child in the task, reducing the number of steps
required, maintaining the studentÕs motivation, setting smaller goals, and
controlling frustration of the student. (see
Content Literacy)

References

Bransford,
J. (2000). How people learn. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press

Gardner,
H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21^{st}
century.

New York: Basic Books

Wiggins,
G. and McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Upper Saddle River, NJ.:

Pearson Merrill Apprentice Hall